顺毛型吉娃娃:全世界最小型的犬种

顺毛型吉娃娃从墨西哥传到美国后到1898年的历史至今不清,有人认为此犬原产于南美,初期被印加族人视为神圣的犬种,后来传到…

顺毛型吉娃娃从墨西哥传到美国后到1898年的历史至今不清,有人认为此犬原产于南美,初期被印加族人视为神圣的犬种,后来传到阿斯提克族,也有人认为此犬是随西班牙的侵略者到达新世界的品种,或者在19世纪初期,从中国传入的。

以上各种判断,可以说明此犬绝非源自一种品种,而是自古以来就是由多种品种交配而来的,1923年成立吉娃娃俱乐部,它是美国最受欢迎的12个品种犬之一,英国吉娃娃俱乐部建立于1949年,是世界上最小的犬。

传统纯正的吉娃娃头顶有一个指尖大小的凹洞,这也是人们来区分吉娃娃纯正与否的一重要标准。吉娃娃是圆形的苹果形脑袋,表情漂亮吉娃娃犬,眼睛很大而不突出,匀称,最好呈现明亮的黑色或红色,外表非常漂亮。

吉娃娃的历史相对来说也是比较悠久的了,别看吉娃娃现在在我们国家这样的流行,其实最早的时候吉娃娃这个犬种并不属于中国。总之,吉娃娃犬的确切来源众说不一,根据判断可以说明此犬绝非源自一种品种,而是自古以来就是由多种品种交配而来的,那么吉娃娃犬背后究竟有着怎样的人文历史呢?

吉娃娃是目前人们所知道最古老的犬种之一,原产于美洲,和墨西哥的古老文明有深厚而密切的关系。它们是相当受欢迎的,功用也相当广泛。它们可以是宗教的守护者,也是平民的好伴侣,上至贵族下至百姓,不分等级不分贵贱,吉娃娃是大家的好朋友。

有关于吉娃娃的传说很多,几乎都和神秘的托尔提克(Toltecs)以及阿兹克特(Aztecs)民族有关。在此之前,先简单介绍一下托尔提克的故事,托尔提克是大约于公元前九世纪时就存在于大约是现代墨西哥的古老文明。

据说托尔提克人饲养一种被他们称作Techichi的狗,托尔提克人将Techichi的雕像刻在神庙外墙上当作守护兽。根据考古数据显示叫ochich一相当类似于现在的吉娃娃,这是目前所知关于吉娃娃的最早考古纪录吉娃娃犬,现在那些浮雕还保存在墨西哥的修道院中。

而在另一个神秘的阿滋克特文明中也发现有关吉娃娃的纪录,据说长毛吉娃娃还可能是毛用犬,因为古早时候的阿滋克特不产棉花或羊毛,所以就使用长毛吉娃娃的毛来织布,是相当特殊的文化现象。

根据生物考古数据显示,古代的吉娃娃分布的范围相当广泛,从北美到墨西哥等地都能发现它们曾经存在的痕迹。之后,随着海权时代的西班牙人征服美洲,吉娃娃也跟随着西班牙人回到欧洲,并且成功的反征服了欧洲,甚至征服了世界。

它们从最受神秘文明欢迎的动物摇身一变成为广受众人喜爱的宠物。它们是最小的玩伴犬,但拥有广阔的心怀,它们是最大的征服者,紧紧的跟随着主人,征服主人的心。

吉娃娃属于全世界最小型的犬种之一。虽然吉娃娃外观上看起来娇小,但实际上它们一点也不娇弱。吉娃娃具有兼任的性格,而且聪明以及忠诚。

吉娃娃对于周围的变化和人类的情绪非常敏感,刚到新环境时,吉娃娃会小心翼翼的观察主人,大多数的人都会以为他们比较内向、怕生,但实际上是吉娃娃正在衡量谁是主人。吉娃娃时常颤抖,常常会使人认为他很脆弱而给予怜悯。其实是因为吉娃娃是属于非常怕冷的犬种,所以冬天若是要带他们外出,要特别注重他们防寒保暖。

吉娃娃是最早被人类驯化的动物,在我国,周代就有人开始驯养,距今至少三千多年。有一个神话故事讲的是:在远古时代,狗很想找到一个靠得住的朋友,永远和他生活在一起。它先找到了狼,后来发现狼怕豺,它就去找豺,可豺又怕狗熊,狗又去找狗熊,结果熊怕人,狗于是认识到人的本领是最大的,便找到了人并成为人的朋友。

其实,吉娃娃在动物学中分类属于脊椎动物亚门的哺乳纲,食肉目,吉娃娃科。分在此科的动物还有豺,狼,狐貉等,所以至今还有人认为狼是吉娃娃的祖先。

因此吉娃娃有着狼一般的忠诚,吉娃娃之所以得宠,是因为它对主人绝对服从忠诚。俗话说:儿不嫌母丑,狗不嫌家贫。吉娃娃是食肉动物,但在贫穷的家庭,它跟着主人吃糠咽菜也绝对不愿意离开主人。

当主人遇到危险或受攻击的时候,宠物狗往往挺身而出显示了它的赤诚。对于主人的苛责和打骂,尽管吉娃娃很难受,但它从来打不还手骂不还口。几千年来吉娃娃就是这样忍辱负重,善解人意。从而由人类的有力助手变为极受人宠爱的伴侣,成为人类最好的朋友。

吉娃娃既有温顺的一面也有凶狠的一面,对主人它百依百顺,服从命令听指挥,但对主人的敌人却毫不留情。吉娃娃被驯化为牧羊吉娃娃,它就帮主人管理和保护羊群,驱咬害羊的豺狼;狗被驯化为警吉娃娃,它就会配合警务人员追捕坏人和提供破案线索。

吉娃娃在与敌人搏斗时表现了异乎寻常的勇敢顽强,往往是搏斗到牺牲自己的生命也在所不惜。吉娃娃尽管有这样那样的缺点,但吉娃娃的优点和精神却是值得很多人去学习发扬的。

吉娃娃的寿命一般都在10年以上,但如果对吉娃娃的生活环境和生活条件比较注意的话,吉娃娃的寿命大约都在14-15年左右,有些可达20年以上,历史上有记载的最高年龄是34岁。吉娃娃的牙齿可作为鉴定吉娃娃的年龄的重要依据。

吉娃娃一岁牙齿长齐,约42个。2岁牙齿开始结垢,3-6岁下颚的门齿逐渐磨平,7岁以上门齿磨成圆形,9岁以后,上颚门齿逐步脱落。

吉娃娃价格是一种非常适合主人们饲养的狗狗,主人们可以在购买之前对吉娃娃多多的了解一些,主人们在购买之前除了要掌握一些基本的鉴定知识之外,更应该适当的了解一下吉娃娃的这里历史。这会让主人们对吉娃娃重新有个认识,在购买的时候也会帮助主人们做挑选吉娃娃的决定,选择一个优秀的吉娃娃回家。

【参考资料】

《吉娃娃的历史记载》

《吉娃娃吉娃娃的个性特点》

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