导盲犬毕业有多难?请关爱导盲犬

遇到导盲犬 你的第一反应是啥? 是拒之于千里之外 (山西一名交警扮盲人带导盲犬坐公交被赶,狗狗情绪低落) 还是默默守护 …

遇到导盲犬

你的第一反应是啥?

是拒之于千里之外

(山西一名交警扮盲人带导盲犬坐公交被赶,情绪低落)

还是默默守护

当它疲惫时的“小枕头”

(上海地铁上,女孩不忍心抽出被导盲犬压住的jio jio,甘当“小枕头”)

相信我们善良又可爱的神仙科迷

都会选择第二种

导盲犬是人间小天使

更是盲人的眼睛

请善待盲人、关爱导盲犬

接纳,从了解开始

让我们一起来看看

要成为一只合格的导盲犬

到底有多难?

01

导盲犬极度稀缺

根据国际导盲犬联盟的规定,1%以上的盲人使用导盲犬,可视为导盲犬的普及。

对盲人来说,导盲犬就如他们的第二双“眼睛”,为盲人的日常出行提供了便利,成为他们的精神寄托。

我国现在有近1700万视障患者,要达到普及标准,至少需要近17万只导盲犬。但实际上,导盲犬的数量只有200只左右!

导盲犬服务对视障患者来说是完全免费的,只要申请并通过评估就可以拥有一只。

由于数量稀少,如果按照申请者的人数来排序,最后一名要等到十年以后,才能见到自己的导盲犬。

02

培养过程艰辛

从成本来说,培育出一只合格的导盲犬至少需要15到20万;从合格率来说,只有不到30%的受训犬能最终成为导盲犬,走上工作岗位;从时长来说,从出生到上岗,一只小要经过2年的受训才可以投入工作。

03

四个阶段的训练

第一阶段:筛选幼犬

首先是品种,一定要不具攻击性,根据2018年12月开始施行的《导盲犬》国家标准,导盲犬选种宜选用拉布拉多和金毛。

品种符合后,导盲犬幼犬需要有完整的血统系谱。要求三代来源清楚,无遗传缺陷,不能有强烈的好奇心和过于活泼的性格,但也不能反应迟钝。

这样下来,一窝七八只的小狗中能选出一两只已经很难得了。

第二阶段:爱心寄养家庭抚养

幼犬两个月大时会到寄养家庭学习”社会生活”,寄养家庭不能依照自己的喜好来养。

期间幼犬要进行稳定性、适应性、服从性和与人共同生活的社会化训练,否则成年犬接受训练的过程就会相当漫长,甚至被淘汰。

直到一岁左右,狗狗的性格已经稳定,接受、反应能力最佳,就会被接回到训练中心。

第三阶段:培训基地技能训练

训练的内容包括带领主人上下楼、过马路、避开障碍物等。还要克服自己的天性,训练时间约6-9个月。导盲犬要上岗需要经历七十多条标准严苛的考核。

狗狗活泼、好奇、喜欢食物,面对突然的刺激会大叫或失控,而这些行为,导盲犬都不能有。

训导员会将它们发达的嗅觉降到最低,训练并不擅长的视觉,哪怕犬类其实是天生的红绿色盲,也要训练它们通过灰色的层次不同来分辨红绿灯。

第四阶段导盲犬品种,使用者共同训练

可以上岗后,导盲犬和申领者要进行至少一个月的共同训练,这期间他们24小时生活在一起,申领者要学会梳毛、喂食、带犬上厕所等等。

04

可能经历多位主人

虽然导盲犬一生只有一个服务对象,但住过的家庭很可能不止一个。

幼犬时期在爱心寄养家庭,训练时期在培训基地,工作时跟服务对象,退休后使用者有优先选择权将导盲犬留下,但有些因独居或其他因素无法继续饲养,这时原寄养家庭或收养家庭可以申请接手。

忠犬八公的故事大家都听过,有的狗狗一生只有一个主人,而导盲犬不行。

05

正常工作受阻

有位盲人坐地铁时,导盲犬被人踩到了,但狗一声没吭,也不敢有大动作。

导盲犬如此乖巧懂事,工作时却经常被误会和拒绝。

国家明确规定:视力残疾人携带导盲犬出入公共场所导盲犬品种,公共场所的工作人员应当按照国家有关规定提供无障碍服务。各大城市的地铁也基本有明文规定,能够带导盲犬上地铁。

但在生活中,往往有很多人对导盲犬充满了误解,甚至干扰它们工作!有人不停挑逗工作中的导盲犬,还感慨:“这狗怎么脾气这么好。”真是令科科气愤!

科科倡议

公共场合看到导盲犬

遵循「四不一问」原则:

不喂食,不抚摸

不呼唤,不拒绝

并询问盲人是否需要帮助

接纳导盲犬,与爱同行

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